講題： The Order of Non-Symmetric Relations: Directional or Neutral?
時間：2018/11/7 (Wednesday) 15:10
摘要： Fine (2000) argues that there is a difficulty to the Standard View of relations, i.e. relations are directional or embedded with orders. Suppose that R is a non-symmetric binary relation and holds of objects a and b. Call the result as the completion Rab. Given that R is non-symmetric, R is able to differentiate between <x, y> and <y, x>. That is, R differentially applies to the objects it relates. Moreover, for any R, ifRab holds, there is also a converse relation R* which holds of a and b in the reverse order, R*ba, and R is distinct from R*. It is tempting to say that Rab is identical to R*ba for that if Irene loves Sherlock, Sherlock is loved by Irene, and vice versa. However, given that R is distinct fromR*, Rab and R*ba must be distinct. Therefore, something must be given up. Fine (2000) argues that it is the Standard View to be rejected and proposes the Anti-Positionalist view according to which some relations are not directional. Rather, they are neutral, i.e. they are not embedded with orders. In this talk, I shall first argue that the Anti-Positionalist view is untenable since it fails to provide a non-circular explanation ofdifferential application. Moreover, I will show that we can accept the Standard View while rejecting that Rab and R*ba are distinct and thereby solve the difficulty proposed by Fine .